Who gets Bitcoin transaction fees?

Whenever I send bitcoins from one wallet or one exchange to the next there is always a fee. This makes sense with the exchange sites, they are just collecting the fee so they can make a living. What about the open source wallets that I’ve installed on my computer?
Surely, nobody is collecting my bitcoins because my transactions are too long! So, is the “fee” part of the Bitcoin algorithm? Do the coins that are confiscated in the fee go to Bitcoin miners?

Also, when does the fee start? I noticed, if I send like 0.05 bitcoins there is no fee, but if I send 0.1 bitcoins there is a fee.
What if I just sent 0.05 bit coins twice? Or is it if they are in the same block I will get a fee, so I’d have to send them twice (and 10 minutes apart)?

Continue reading Who gets Bitcoin transaction fees?