After sending/flooding transactions, how do we know that a specific transaction is on all nodes?

In the book “Mastering the Blockchain” by Imran Bashir, it says that a transaction’s life cycle is the following:

  1. A user/sender sends a transaction using wallet software or some other interface.
  2. The wallet software signs the transaction using the sender’s private key.
  3. The transaction is broadcasted to the Bitcoin network using a flooding algorithm.
  4. Mining nodes include this transaction in the next block to be mined.
  5. Mining starts once a miner who solves the Proof of Work problem broadcasts the newly mined
    block to the network. Proof of Work is explained in detail later in this chapter.
  6. The nodes verify the block and propagate the block further, and confirmation starts to generate.
  7. Finally, the confirmations start to appear in the receiver’s wallet and after approximately six
    confirmations, the transaction is considered finalized and confirmed. However, six is just a
    recommended number; the transaction can be considered final even after the first confirmation.
    The key idea behind waiting for six confirmations is that the probability of double spending is
    virtually eliminated after six confirmations.

My question:

Now all nodes have competing miners to create a block by receiving all transactions by all nodes/users that submit transactions and packing it, which is not coming from one place. If we call the winner, the miner that solves the PoW problem first, then how do we know that he received all the transactions he’s supposed to receive before announcing that he created a valid block? My miner software could ignore a few transactions and get to mining earlier than others, and hence beat everyone else (assuming we all have the same computational power).

My question also can be read in a different way: How do ensure that all miners are solving the same PoW problem, while big latency times can be involved in the Bitcoin network (because we’re mining from around the world)?

Will I be still getting segwit2x coins if I store BTC in my desktop BTC wallet

I’m with three exchanges, one says they don’t support BTG and therefore user should withdraw their BTC before Nov 16th’s fork takes place.

Another one says they will issue 1:1 segwit2x.

The last one doesn’t seem giving a clear answer.

I have some BTC in these three places. If I withdraw my BTC to my desktop wallet, would I be able to receive segwit2x and BTG when fork take place?

In the Lightning Network, what happens if a “middle node” suddenly goes dormant for a long while?

I think I have a general understanding of how the Lightning Network works. However, I was having a little difficulty in understanding what happens when a node in the middle of a “path” suddenly goes dormant, or offline for a long time. To clarify my question, consider the following example:

  1. A wants to make a payment of 1 BTC to D.
  2. A finds a path from A –> B –> C –> D.
  3. D generates an R and sends H = hash(R) to A
  4. A creates HTLC of 1.002 BTC with B.
  5. B creates HTLC of 1.001 BTC with C.
  6. C creates HTLC of 1 BTC with D.
  7. D unlocks HTLC, receives 1 BTC, and then tells R to C.

However, what if C is suddenly offline meaning C won’t be there to receive R from D and thus stops the flow of R back through the path. I would assume that the HTLC’s between A and B and B and C run out and so A and B are refunded.

So, would C lose out? Would A have just made a “free” transaction? I assume this is a fast process, but is it likely such an event occurs where a middle node in an LN transaction just goes down for a long while?

Running Bitcoind as a service on windows 10

So I am trying to run bitcoin daemon as a service on windows 10, so I don’t have to keep starting it.

I have tried the following command:

sc create BitcoinServer binpath= "C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind.exe -regetest" start=auto 

Which creates a service, but when I try to start that, I get an error:

enter image description here

Is there any way to create a bitcoind regetest service?

How to retrieve unspent outputs on mSigna

Due to an upgrade, I had to recreate my wallet (vault) file from scratch – a process that took over a week. During this time, I was able to spend one coin (sending it to because I somehow managed to find an old copy of the software and it worked for one transaction only and then fell over. That appeared to work fine. When looking at the ‘watch only’ address imported into my wallet, it showed the spend plus the remainder at that address being sent to another address starting with ‘3’. I was comfortable with this because mSigna wallet addresses start with ‘3’ because they can be multi-sig wallets. However, when mSigna finally completed syncing my new vault file, the unspent coin actually shows up in my list of wallet transactions as ‘spent’. Obviously this is a shock to the system – it’s quite a bit of coin.

However, I think what happened is that the address of the unspent output is somehow not in sync with my wallet and that’s why I’m showing a balance below that which I should truly have.

I can think of two possible paths forward:

  1. If I can get the private key from mSigna, I can move the funds manually through a site like, or

  2. I try to re-sync the entire wallet again – and wait a week or more

Are there any other ideas worth considering? Thanks in advance for your help.


What is the pool in Nicehash?

I am new to Bitcoin and recently have invested in bitcoins. I came across Nicehash when I was planning to get into Bitcoin mining. I understand that Nicehash gives you an option to rent hash power for mining. But what I don’t understand is the pool option in it. What exactly are the pools in Nicehash and how do I create a pool account or join a pool or something? I don’t want to spend any money on Nicehash without understanding what exactly it is used for.

Paper wallet imported to with private keys

Recently I added my paper wallet address and private key to my account. Now I cannot find an option in the app or in the website to delete the imported private key, does that mean that now holds my private key? In that case, I won’t be able to add my wallet into another similar app because it’s already synced with with my private keys! I am new to this whole bitcoin thing so I am still trying to figure things out.

Antminers – Can you monitor via SNMP, and set up configuration file Chron Jobs

I have an antminer and its very loud. Is it possible to set up a chron job to stop mining, apply a new config file with a lower clockrate and set fan speed overnight? Then to do the same at 7am but overclock it to compensate for the lower hashrate overnight.

Are they also compatible via SNMP? Would like to monitor the temps and if the system is rebooting itself.